Headache during pregnancy. Causes and treatment.
Headache? Drink any painkiller that was at hand, and continue to live without pain. Headache during pregnancy delivers much more trouble, since the use of many drugs is contraindicated for future moms.
Complaints of women of childbearing age for headache – a very common phenomenon. 80% of the female population suffer from this disease. During pregnancy, alas, headaches may intensify and become frequent. There are quite a few reasons.
– natural hormonal changes in the body (progesterone and estrogen levels increase during pregnancy, which affects vascular tone; due to fluctuations of which headaches may well occur),
– changes in the cardiovascular and nervous systems,
– a change in diet (for example, refusal from coffee may initially cause headaches in some pregnant women),
– bad posture causes a headache in the third trimester,
– changing weather or climate zone,
There is a recognized by physicians and scientists typing headache. So they secrete a primary headache and a secondary one. Primary headaches include stress that is often encountered in pregnancy and headache, and also not very common – cluster headache and a specific headache.
A secondary headache results from:
– head injuries (domestic violence, disasters),
– vascular disorders (subarachnoid hemorrhage, hypertension),
– intracranial pathology (increased intracranial pressure, tumors, meningitis),
– use or, on the contrary, the abolition of drugs, alcohol, certain drugs,
– systemic infections (urosepsis),
– organic pathology of the skull (teeth, eyes, neck),
The hormones of the reproductive system affect both the bloodstream and the neurochemical processes in the body, so during pregnancy, none of the types of headaches are excluded.
Migraine is characterized by the following symptoms: headache unilateral, intense, throbbing; interferes with daily activities. As a result of migraine appetite decreases, sleep is disturbed. There is a separate sub-type of migraine – “migraine with aura”: first there are circles before the eyes or flashes of light, and then there is severe pain, accompanied by nausea and increased sensitivity to light.
If before pregnancy you suffered from migraines, then, quite likely, during the nine months of waiting, this ailment will leave you or migraine attacks will become less significant and intrusive. Such a favorable turn of events is most likely if the migraine was previously caused by menstruation. Alas, migraine often reminds of itself at the end of pregnancy or immediately after childbirth.
If during pregnancy you first encountered a migraine, especially “with aura,” be sure to report this to the gynecologist who is leading your pregnancy. Most likely, he will decide on a full and thorough examination to rule out serious diseases, such as intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral thrombosis.
We can speak about this type of pain if the pain is constant, bilateral, in intensity – mild or moderate. Headache tension does not lead to a decrease in the activity of your life. Most common in the first and second trimester.
If you encounter this view headache during pregnancy, then, most likely, the doctor will advise you to change the mode of the day and lifestyle. In this case, drug treatment is either not prescribed at all or is reduced to a minimum.
Sharp, Suddenly Appearing, Strong headache during pregnancy can signal about serious pathologies of the central nervous system: subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage (has recently become more common in pregnant women, but this is due to the increased incidence of cocaine or alcohol in the period of childbearing), cerebral venous thrombosis, infection of the head and neck. In some cases, surgery may be required or a decision is made on premature delivery, as there is a serious danger to the life of the mother and child.
This information is worth knowing in order to be sensitive to the signals of your body during pregnancy. But you should not worry too much – during pregnancy all these deviations are extremely rare, the vast majority of cases of headache do not pose a danger to the mother and the unborn child.
To prevent a headache, you must:
Normalize the day regimen (proper sleep, walks in the fresh air).
You need to drink enough liquid. Perhaps due to toxicosis, your body loses fluid, which leads to partial dehydration and headaches.
Hunger can cause headaches, so you need regular meals.
To exclude from the diet products that provoke a headache. These include: coffee, chocolate, canned food, sausages, sausage, alcohol, nuts, cheese.
If the headache is caused by problems with the cervical spine, massage will help.
Elimination of nervous and emotional overload.
Try to avoid being in stuffy, smoky, poorly ventilated areas.
Headache treatment without medication
Drug treatment of headache during pregnancy is limited, so you should not experiment with pills without first consulting with your doctor. Painkillers can have a negative impact on the condition of the future mom and fetus.
If a headache overtook you during pregnancy, you need to try to defeat her folk remedies. Sometimes it is enough to retire in a ventilated room with subdued lighting, where you can relax in complete silence in a comfortable position. Or try to sleep – a short sleep, most likely, will save you from a headache. Head massage with circular movements of the fingers, compresses, putting ice on the back of the head for 20 minutes, washing the head with warm water may help to cope with headaches during pregnancy. Try to tie a scarf tight on your head – maybe this is your way of getting rid of a headache ?!
And do not forget about the miraculous properties of some herbs: decoctions of mint, lemon balm, rosehip, chamomile soothe and soothe the pain. If the headache is triggered by low blood pressure, strong sweet tea will come to your rescue.
Non-pharmacological remedies for headache include: homeopathic remedies (prescribed individually by a homeopathic doctor), acupuncture (be careful about the choice of a specialist) and aromatherapy (it is worthwhile to dwell on the use of aromatics and use minimal dosages of essential oils).
Be sure to measure the pressure before applying the oil. Orange, grapefruit or verbena oils are able to return lowered pressure to normal. If the headache is caused by hypertension, use oils such as ylang-ylang, lavender, and lemon.
During pregnancy, the use of a number of oils is strictly excluded – read the instructions carefully before use. Here is a list of some of them: oils of basil, myrrh, oregano, juniper, cedar, chamomile, thuja, fennel, hyssop, jasmine, marjoram, lemon balm, peppermint and marsh, sage, wormwood, rosemary, thyme.
Happy pregnancy and easy delivery!
- Prevention of headache during pregnancy
Headache during pregnancy occurs quite often, especially in the first and third trimesters. Pregnancy is a special condition of the female body, in which due to the development of the fetus there is a significant restructuring of all organs and systems. These changes affect the course of many diseases and pathological conditions, including the development of a headache.
Causes of headache during pregnancy
The main causes of headache in pregnant women:
- Hypotension (decrease in blood pressure). It is characterized by weakness, dizziness, headache;
- Hypertension (high blood pressure). Manifested by severe pressure in the temples, nausea, vomiting, palpitations;
- . Excessive anxiety, psycho-emotional stress, increased mental stress lead to the frequent appearance of severe headache;
- , regular sleep deprivation;
- Long stay in a stuffy room;
- . Frequent consumption of products containing tyramine (a nitrogenous compound that affects blood vessels) can cause headaches. These products include: chocolate, nuts, tea, coffee, cheese, avocado, chicken liver, yogurt, citrus fruits, bananas;
- . Pregnant women should eat often (5-6 times a day) in small portions;
- (bright light, loud sound, strong smell);
- (long reading, working at a computer, watching TV);
- . Sudden severe headache can be a sign of a violation of the blood circulation of the brain in many diseases:
- Glaucoma (chronic eye disease characterized by a constant or periodic increase in intraocular pressure);
- Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord);
- Sinusitis (inflammation of one or more paranasal sinuses);
- Cervical osteochondrosis (dystrophic changes in the cervical spine, which lead to a violation of its structure and functions);
- Kidney disease;
- Head hematomas (limited accumulation of blood in case of head injuries (bumps, falls);
- Migraine. The headache is extremely strong, throbbing, often affects only one half of the head. Accompanied by pain in the eyes, visual impairment, nervous reaction to noise, bright light, nausea, vomiting.
Headache treatment during pregnancy
Treatment should begin with non-drug methods:
- in a cool darkened room;
- (fingertips to perform circular movements);
- Compresses with cold water or ice applied to the temporal, frontal and occipital regions;
- Compresses with fresh white cabbage leaves (hold until the pain stops);
- av (mint, lemon balm, chamomile, wild rose);
If these methods do not give effect and the pain does not stop or, on the contrary, increases, you can take a pill of paracetamol or its analogues (Panadol, Efferalgan).
ImportantThe use of aspirin and its analogues (Askofen, Citramon) and analgin (Baralgin, Spazmalgan) is strictly prohibited during pregnancy!
If a headache is a symptom of another disease, and not an independent pathology, then these methods will bring only a temporary effect. Be sure to find out the cause of the headache and undergo a course of treatment of the underlying disease.
Headaches: features of headaches during pregnancy
One of the most common health problems, especially in women, is headache. Headache, as you know, can be different – stubborn and not very unexpected and imminent as inevitability, the head can hurt in one area, for example, in the temporal one, and everything can hurt, as they say. And it can cause discomfort to varying degrees – from the annoying “background” of existence to such episodes in which existence itself seems to be no longer possible.
Types of headache in women
Headaches due to increased or decreased intracranial pressure. Most often, such pains occur due to brain tumors and intracranial hematomas. Such pains are characterized by vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, usually occur at night or early in the morning. For accurate diagnosis of such headaches, computed tomography is prescribed, they are usually treated with surgical intervention.
There is also another form of headache, which is caused by an increase in intracranial pressure, but without any formations in the brain. Such pains can be found in young girls or women, with a weight exceeding the norm.
Along with headaches, there may also be visual impairment. Symptoms for such pains are pain in the forehead, temples, neck, or the entire head. It can be provoked due to changes in weather, overwork, stress.
Headache tension. Such a headache is usually caused by stress. There are emotional (stress, feelings) and muscle tension (tension of the muscles of the neck). People suffering from headaches of this type are prescribed computed tomography, as well as a visit to a neuropathologist or even a psychiatrist, since tension headache can occur as a result of latent depression.
Headache due to concussion (traumatic brain injury). Such headaches, as a rule, can last for many years after trauma and are accompanied by anxiety, irritability, decreased concentration, dizziness. The patient usually worries that his condition becomes worse, begins to suffer from depression. For headaches caused by concussion, as a rule, a spa treatment and anesthetics are required.
Cervical headache. Cervical headache can be both moderate and very strong. It is localized from a neck in a nape, in whiskey, eyes. Such pain may be accompanied by nausea, staggering, dizziness. It usually occurs as a result of sharp neck movements, fatigue, colds, and osteochondrosis.
Any headache that lasts even for a long time requires examination.
X-ray computed tomography of the brain – provides an opportunity to see the volumetric formations in the cranial cavity, areas of impaired cerebral circulation (acute and chronic), anomalies of brain development, traumatic injuries and
Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine has even more opportunities. Allows you to see the structure of not only the brain, but also the spinal cord, significantly helping in the diagnosis of tumors, small and large foci after a stroke, traumatic lesions, sinusitis, intervertebral hernia, and a whole range of diseases that can cause headaches.
Magnetic resonance angiography is a new technique that allows, without the introduction of contrast agents, to assess the state of intracranial (intracerebral), extracranial (neck vessels) arteries and veins, to identify their stenotic changes, aneurysms, arterio-venous malformations.
Blood pressure monitoring is a method that allows you to identify hidden arterial hypertension, to establish the features of blood pressure fluctuations during the day and to adjust therapy to reduce blood pressure.
Blood tests – allow you to identify signs of infection, inflammation.
Inspection of the oculist is shown in almost all cases of headache, as possible changes in the fundus, which only an optometrist can see with the help of special equipment, also help to establish the true cause of the headache. In addition, the optometrist will assess the state of refraction, visual acuity, visual field.
Headaches in pregnant women
Doctors claim that headache complaints during pregnancy are very common, especially during the first and third trimesters, and that this can rarely be considered a signal for serious concern. Moreover, according to doctors, during pregnancy it is impossible to establish the exact cause of the headache.
In the first trimester, headaches occur due to the influence of hormones in your changing body, and in the third trimester, headaches occur due to the fact that you have to carry extra weight and undergo changes in the usual state of affairs.
The most common form of headache experienced during pregnancy is migraine, which occurs when the blood vessels in the brain narrow and expand. Doctors say that about one in five women have experienced a migraine at least once in their lives, and about 15% of them experience a migraine for the first time when they carry a child.
Causes of headaches in pregnant women
- eating cold foods;
- Bananas, avocados, citrus;
- Products containing thiamine and phenylamine.
Headaches do not affect the development of the child in any way, but depression and depression, which has arisen against their background, can cause serious harm to the health of the future mother and baby. Therefore, take care to stop the symptoms in time and prevent a strong attack flowing into a migraine.
In some cases, the doctor prescribes medication for the pregnant woman. Tablets containing paracetamol are considered safe for pain relief. Do not addictive tablets Efferalgan and Panadol. For headaches caused by low blood pressure, Panadol Extra is prescribed, containing small doses of caffeine.
It is strictly forbidden, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, aspirin, because its reception has a negative effect on the child and provokes the development of heart defects and lower jaw. Analgin provokes disorders in the blood, so the use of any medication for pain relief should be carried out only on the advice of a doctor.
Homeopathic remedies are widely used in the treatment of pregnant women. But again, only a homeopathic doctor should prescribe such drugs after a preliminary detailed conversation with the pregnant woman. Self-treatment even with natural homeopathic pills can lead to disastrous consequences and cause problems in the development of the child.
Acupuncture is a well-known and effective way to relieve headaches. Carefully approach the choice of a specialist, contact a certified medical center. Acupuncture effects during pregnancy can bring not only benefits, but also harm, so trust your health and the life of the future baby into the hands of a trusted specialist.
Aromatherapy is a method that affects our sense of smell. Remember that pregnant women need to use the minimum dosage of essential oils, so as not to provoke allergic reactions. For headaches, a temporal lobe massage with a small amount of lavender oil is recommended. Compresses with essential oils are effective. Dampen a towel in cool water, which add a few drops of spikelet mint. Compress put on the forehead and temples, take a horizontal position, close your eyes and rest.
Prevention of headache during pregnancy
Headaches are easier to prevent than to get rid of them. A woman in position should make adjustments in her daily routine to prevent the occurrence of migraines.
- Rest more, get enough sleep;
- Adjust the amount of fluid you drink per day. Puffiness provokes headaches;
- Every day for several hours to walk in the fresh air;
- Do physical exercises (aqua aerobics, yoga, pilates are recommended for pregnant women);
- Learn to relax and be distracted from life problems and troubles.
Taking preventive measures and knowing how to treat a headache in pregnancy, you will always be fully armed, and this attack will not catch you by surprise.
Second trimester of pregnancy
With the onset of the second trimester of pregnancy, the “golden time” begins for the future mom: toxicosis, most likely, is already in the past, the tummy is somewhat rounded, but not yet enough to add clumsiness and difficulties to the woman. The second trimester of pregnancy, starting from the 13th week, becomes the most fertile period for the future mom: now one can walk in the open air, attend a swimming pool or yoga classes, enjoy theatrical performances and reading books without suffering from headaches and constant nausea.
Every week, pregnancy becomes noticeable to others: the figure of the woman is rounded, the breast increases. Experts advise little by little to think about the bandage, which is recommended to start wearing from about the 20th week of pregnancy in order to avoid stretch marks and to eliminate the threat of termination of pregnancy. At the same time, slowly you can begin to prepare for breastfeeding, daily rubbing the mammary glands with a towel and taking air baths.
In the second trimester of pregnancy, one of the main periods of the intrauterine life of the baby also falls: by the 16th week, the insertion of the internal organs of the baby and the formation of the placenta is completed. So, henceforth, the function of supplying oxygen and nutrients, as well as the obligation to protect the child from the influence of many harmful substances and the penetration of infections, falls on the placenta.
Second Trimester Nausea Pregnancy
As a rule, nausea in the second trimester of pregnancy does not bother a woman – toxicosis with all the accompanying “charms” becomes an unpleasant memory of the early stages of pregnancy. Most pregnant women to the second trimester notice that the nausea has disappeared, and it was replaced by an increased appetite.
But at the same time, we should not forget that every person’s body is unique, and each woman “transfers” the pregnancy in different ways. Therefore, it is not surprising that some mothers, even with the onset of the second trimester of pregnancy, may complain of nausea, which usually occurs in the morning, immediately after waking up, or as a reaction to irritating odors.
The methods of “fighting” with this unpleasant phenomenon are used by the usual ones: you can cope with morning nausea by drinking water with lemon or tea right after waking up and snacking on cookies or crackers without even getting out of bed. Still, you should “look for” the most optimal products, avoiding fatty foods. It is advisable to exclude all odors that provoke nausea – a sharp perfume, the flavor of pasties or fried onions (who are women for that “weak”).
In the case of debilitating nausea with constant, regular bouts of vomiting, you should still consult a doctor: this situation is considered a pathology and can be a threat.
Second trimester of pregnancy
If in the early stages vaginal secretions do not change dramatically or quantitatively, then the second trimester of pregnancy is usually characterized by some increase in secretions. At the same time, discharge in the second trimester of pregnancy acquire a slightly whitish color of a milky shade, and their unexpressed, slightly sour smell distinguishes them.
The increase in the intensity of discharge is a consequence of the hormonal adjustment of the body, and one should be prepared for the fact that as the duration of pregnancy increases, the amount of discharge will also increase. If the discharge is not accompanied by itching and / or burning sensation and does not change color, do not worry. But you should be wary if:
- appear cheesy or thickly white discharge in the second trimester of pregnancy, bringing discomfort in the form of itching or burning. Most likely, you will have to deal with thrush, which must be treated in order to avoid transmission of infection to the baby;
- spotting appears. They may have been provoked by cervical erosion, in addition, such secretions may signal a threat of miscarriage or premature birth (depending on time);
- the secretions change color, acquiring a greenish, yellow tint or are distinguished by “foaminess.” Probably, it will be about the accession of the infection;
- discharge distinguished by transparency and unpleasant odor. Great risk of developing bacterial vaginosis;
- discharge abundant, while transparent and do not have a pronounced unpleasant odor. Perhaps this indicates irritation from any impacts (for example, as a reaction to daily pads, and then the situation can be changed by eliminating the stimulus). Or there is a leakage of amniotic fluid (you can install using a test indicator, sold in a pharmacy, or during the survey).
Second trimester pain
The most common complaints of this period concerning painful sensations are back pain and pelvic pain. Doctors explain such pains in the second trimester of pregnancy by a gradual increase in the uterus and, consequently, an abdominal size that increases.
But there should be no pain in the abdomen. Therefore, with the appearance of pulling pain in the abdomen, and even “supported” by pains in the sacrum or thighs, and even more so if there is bloody discharge, you should immediately consult a doctor – the risk of pregnancy failure is too high.
Heartburn can become a very unpleasant phenomenon of the second trimester of pregnancy – as a result of squeezing of the stomach by the growing uterus, in connection with which the normal function of the digestive system is disturbed.
Again, due to the increase in the size of the uterus and the compression of the abdominal organs, the development of constipation is possible. It is important to adhere to the proper diet and increase the amount of fiber in the diet, and prunes, dried apricots and baked apples will also help to cope with constipation. Constipation should be avoided, because from constant constipation to hemorrhoids close, and this is much more serious and “painful” than just the inability to go to the toilet “for the most part”.
Perhaps in the second trimester of pregnancy the appearance of cramps – painful involuntary muscle contractions in the calves and feet. This symptom may indicate a violation of mineral metabolism in the body and caused by congestion in the legs. It is important to maintain an active lifestyle, doing gymnastics for the joints and visiting the pool, do a foot massage and pay attention to the quality of nutrition. So, in the diet in sufficient quantities must be present calcium, magnesium and vitamin E.
Common cold in the second trimester of pregnancy
In the second trimester, as well as throughout the pregnancy, the woman is still vulnerable to all kinds of colds. But, fortunately, a cold in the second trimester of pregnancy no longer presents such a danger as in the early stages of carrying a baby. And, nevertheless, it is necessary to treat colds, and, necessarily with the intervention of a doctor – most of the medications are still banned, and the common cold, though not on such “scales”, can still cause a great deal of trouble.
So, at this stage, a cold can provoke the development of placental insufficiency, and because of impaired function of the placenta, the risk of fetal hypoxia is high, and fetal development is delayed. In addition, a cold in the second trimester of pregnancy can affect the nervous system of the fetus, because it is now actively developing.
If a cold caught a woman in the 14th week of pregnancy, there is a risk of miscarriage, in addition, endocrine system disorders are possible (now its formation is curtailed). At 16-17 weeks of pregnancy, a cold can affect the formation of a child’s bone tissue – active strengthening of the fetal bones lasts until the 18th week. A cold at 19-20 weeks of pregnancy is dangerous for a girl growing up in the womb of the mother: this period has the formation of babies’ eggs, and viruses can have an extremely adverse effect on their number and functioning.
In connection with all of the above, treatment of colds in the second trimester of pregnancy should not be neglected. The treatment regimen should be discussed with the doctor, in any case, the woman is shown bed rest, drinking plenty of water, rinsing her throat with herbal decoction with the addition of soda, and rinsing her nose with saline.
Second trimester temperature
But not always, unfortunately, colds are expressed only by mild ailments, in many cases they are associated with a significant increase in temperature. It is believed that a markedly elevated temperature in the second trimester of pregnancy does not have a negative effect on the fetus – to a certain extent the negative effects are removed by the placental barrier, the placenta also becomes an obstacle to the penetration of viruses and infections to the baby. But, at the same time, it is necessary to be treated, and necessarily – following the treatment regimen prescribed by the doctor.
It should be remembered that to reduce the temperature in no case can not use Aspirin, Analgin, Nurofen. Only paracetamol-based preparations are acceptable as an antipyretic, and then after consultation with a specialist. At the same time, if the temperature does not exceed the figures of 37.8-38 degrees, it is advisable to cope with the temperature syndrome with the help of folk remedies – using lime-colored decoction, tea with honey and raspberries, making cold compresses.
Read also Second screening during pregnancy.
If a significantly elevated temperature is recorded without symptoms associated with the common cold in the form of cough, runny nose and malaise, it may be caused by much more serious illnesses. Thus, pyelonephritis, tuberculosis, herpes and some other diseases that are dangerous for the development and normal formation of the fetus may be accompanied by high fever. Therefore, in the presence of heat without cold symptoms, it is necessary to consult with a physician and gynecologist, as well as, if necessary, to pass tests.
As for the “subfebrile” states within the limits of 37.2-37.5 degrees. The slightly elevated temperature inherent in the early gestational period may also persist during the second trimester. But, at the same time, such temperature indicators in the second trimester of pregnancy can also be a sign of the ectopic position of the fetus. And so, too, examinations and ultrasound examinations, tests that are necessary at this time, acquire such importance.
Second trimester ultrasound
In the second trimester of a pregnant woman, a second planned ultrasound scan will be conducted, the optimal period for which is 20-24 weeks. By this time ultrasound examination does not provide for the mandatory preparation and conduct of it with a full bladder: there is enough of the already available amniotic fluid.
During ultrasound in the second trimester of pregnancy, a specialist evaluates the development of the fetus and the amount of amniotic fluid, determines the presence or absence of malformations of the internal systems and organs of the child, specifies the duration of pregnancy. If for some reason a multiple pregnancy was not diagnosed during the first scheduled ultrasound, the doctor will tell her mom and dad about her presence now. In addition, ultrasound in the second trimester of pregnancy can show the sex of the expected baby, however, often the baby turns ass, which makes the determination impossible.
The second routine ultrasound allows, among other things, to assess the state of the placenta and the umbilical cord, to display data on the length of the cervix and the state of the internal os.
Second Trimester Tests
In addition to ultrasound, tests are needed in the second trimester of pregnancy in the form of a clinical blood test (mainly to determine the level of hemoglobin) and urinalysis (to assess kidney function). In addition, a gynecological smear will be taken from the pregnant woman, and if necessary, an analysis for TORCH infection.
In the second trimester of pregnancy, the so-called biochemical screening, or the “triple test”, can be proposed and conducted. This analysis includes a blood test for 3 main markers: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and estriol. The triple test allows you to identify possible malformations and chromosomal abnormalities of the fetus, impaired spinal cord formation, hydrocephalus and some other pathologies. This “combined” analysis can be shown to those of women who have already had a fading pregnancy, to those who have relatives with congenital developmental pathologies. However, it should be borne in mind that the diagnosis in any case is not made according to the results of the analysis: a triple test is designed to determine whether the pregnant woman belongs to the risk group. The optimal period for conducting biochemical screening is considered to be 16-18 weeks.
Signs of missed second trimester pregnancy
One of the biggest tragedies that can happen in the second trimester of pregnancy is fetal death. In principle, the cessation of the development and subsequent death of the fetus, which, in fact, is a missed abortion, can occur in earlier periods. The risk of fading persists in the second trimester, the most dangerous in this regard is the period of 16-18 weeks.
The main signs that may indicate a fading pregnancy are:
- cessation or absence of fetal movement. The first movements of the baby can be felt by mom by the age of 18-20 weeks (usually, before the stirring, they are felt by repetitive women). If the baby suddenly ceased to “move” from time to time in the tummy, immediately consult a doctor – a specialist will listen to the fetal heartbeat with a stethoscope, and in case of poor indicators (a deaf or unheard pulse), an additional ultrasound will be prescribed;
- possible fading of pregnancy may signal changes in the mammary glands. So, for a frozen pregnancy, a decrease in the size of the breasts is characteristic, the mammary glands become soft, the release of colostrum stops;
- a specialist during a gynecological examination can diagnose pregnancy freezing: on the ajar cervix, the growth of the uterus stops, thick brown discharge and the specific red-pink color of the vagina.
Second trimester nutrition
Nutrition in the second trimester of pregnancy still plays a key role for the normal formation of the fetus and the excellent health of the future mom. The main condition relating to the diet – it must be balanced, provide the body of a woman and a child in the right quantities with essential nutrients and beneficial substances.
Mandatory on the table mothers fish and lean meats (better in boiled form), which will become the main source of protein. Eggs, cottage cheese, dairy and dairy products will provide such necessary calcium at this stage, which is necessary for the normal formation of a child’s bone tissue. Beef liver, buckwheat porridge, apples and tomato juice will supply the body with iron, the need for which is increasing day by day, and the lack of which can provoke anemia. Vegetables and fruits in sufficient quantities in the diet are required – both as a source of vitamins and minerals, and as a “preservative” against constipation.
Of great importance is the quality of food: during pregnancy, it is better to abandon smoked meat, marinades, convenience foods, all sorts of purchased ketchup-mayonnaise-sauces. In addition, it is necessary to limit the consumption of sweets and flour products, to avoid a jump in weight and not to provoke the development of diabetes in pregnant women.
And, of course, alcohol is categorically forbidden in the second trimester of pregnancy, with a high degree of risk of negative impact on the development of the child. However, in some cases, specialists allowed red wine in small quantities, but only occasionally, necessarily natural and non-fixed, diluted by half with water.
Vitamins in the second trimester of pregnancy
The need for valuable substances, including vitamins, increases approximately 1.5 times during pregnancy. But this does not mean that a woman should be taken a priori in the form of multivitamin preparations in the second trimester of pregnancy, in no way. So, the body of each person, do not get tired to remind physicians, is individual, and therefore, the needs of each pregnant woman are individual. Moreover, according to one of the theories, the body “is able” to independently regulate needs and “distribute” reserves.
If in the recent past many doctors prescribed vitamins courses for all pregnant women (and it is necessary to coordinate the reception of certain multivitamin preparations with a doctor), today many people refuse from this practice. It has been proven that the uncontrolled prescription of vitamin complexes during pregnancy very often leads to the birth of large children, which, moreover, are born in the process of caesarean section (too large a woman is not always able to give birth to a natural fetus).
Therefore, all the same, the main “emphasis” on the issue of providing the body with vitamins is done by doctors on good nutrition, especially if a pregnant woman carefully follows the diet, the pregnancy did not occur during the winter-spring period and proceeds safely. The principles of proper nutrition in order to obtain the maximum amount of vitamins from food products: the mandatory presence in the daily menu of proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, prebiotics and probiotics.
At the same time, it is necessary to take into account that some substances are prescribed to all expectant mothers in addition, regardless of age, living conditions and state of health. These include folic acid and vitamin E – they are necessary to reduce the risk of possible anomalies of the nervous development of the child. In addition, folic acid supplementation reduces the likelihood of pre-eclampsia or hypertension associated with pregnancy.
During pregnancy, including the second trimester, the need also increases for B vitamins (necessary for protein digestion, development of the nervous system and brain), vitamins A may be deficient (responsible for the development of bone tissue, retina, skin) C ( reduces the risk of preterm birth, is necessary for immunity), D (participates in the formation of bone tissue and the “tab” of the baby’s teeth). But the expediency of additional intake of certain multivitamin preparations combining different combinations of vitamins should be determined by the doctor. It is possible that the need for vitamins can be filled by adjusting the diet.
Sex in the second trimester of pregnancy
When the main anxieties about the fixation of the fetus in the uterus and its normal development remain in the past, and with them all the ailments and signs of early toxicosis go into oblivion, the woman quite logically “remembers” the pleasant moments of intimacy. So, together with the spouse who missed his bodily pleasures, he wonders whether sex is possible and how safe sex is in the second trimester of pregnancy.
Almost all doctors agree that in the absence of contraindications and the normal course of pregnancy, sex in the second trimester is not only resolved, but also necessary. So, sex life does not harm the future baby at all, but Mom and Dad are given the opportunity to experience new sensations, get even closer and fully enjoy the touches of each other.
Interestingly, many women note: the middle of pregnancy is marked by a kind of “surge” of sexual energy. Doctors explain the growing need for physical love in this case, the intense blood supply to the pelvic organs. Therefore, sex in the second trimester of pregnancy, if not prohibited by a doctor, can even be practiced.